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The first set of OQSI recommendations are being posted on this website as from January, 2016 and will remain work in progress as we receive feedback from interested parties.

Our Task Forces review all recommendations to ensure coherence with different aspects of application including:
  • project design methods including simulation
  • IT security
  • datasets and RTA


PCPM Project Cycle & Portfolio Management is the first recommendation of OQSI with recommendation reference as OQSI:1. As with all OQSI recommendations it is work in progress where we endeavour to improve the recommendations so as to secure an improved basis for project cycle management and porfolio management.

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Transforms are fully differentiated activities and components of any fully integrated process made up of one or more transforms. These were proposed1 as a distinct process component to avoid the possible confusion associated with the term "activity" which often embodies several distinct activities.

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ARMs Activity Reference Models have been adopted by OQSI to facilitate the preparation of DRMs (see below) by non-IT personnel. Its is bascially the step before defining data requirements. The model records descriptions of physical phenomena (objects), their properties and transformation processes (methods) used by activities and which need to be represented by data sets. ARMs have a direct application on PCPM design procedures to make clear the distribution of distinct contibuting activities and their associated inputs and outputs in a project process. ARMs are transform-specific1 and contain the following information:
  • the output of an activity
  • the activity required to secure that output
  • all of the inputs required by the activity
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DRM Data Reference Models were proposed during a DAI workshop in 20141 as a means of improving communications and recording progress within systems engineering groups which, by their very nature, are multi-disciplinary. The scope of DRM application is very wide and it is particularly relevant to systems design, the identification of appropriate decision analysis models as well as providing a transparent medium for recording group progress including monitoring and evaluation reports.

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4P is an emerging standard designed to provide a minimum level of due diligence in the specification of appropriate policy procedures where the policy procedure is defined at having the following object orientated components:
  • name of procedure
  • name/s of methods taking the fom of determinant models or formula/ae
  • specification of the data set required for the procedure to operate correctly
In terms of Object Oriented Logic a procedure is not a physical object but rather a conceptual construct consisting mainly of a structured relationship which in itself is a model of physical processes and objects, we are dealing with a virtual object. However the model is a coherent description of the necessary information to run a simulation (emulation) of reality. Policy procedures are of little utility unless they can represent reality; there is nothing more practical than a relevant theory.

The policy procedure in each case can be specified by a DRM (Data Reference Model).

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The precise identification of operational system shortcomings can be related and measured in terms of the quantity or quality of provisions of a system be it a technology, economic policy or health system. The precise causes of gaps in provisions need to be quantified objectively in order to begin to build a decision analysis model with which to identify solution options. Needs analysis is an essential first step in the development of decision analysis and our recommendations on this important area of work will be issued in April, 2016.



A decision analysis model is a device that enables users to trace the functional relationships between inputs, their inter-relationships and outputs. A good decision analysis model can provide a useful analytical overview of the influence of different factors on the outcomes of decisions through simulations that can identify solution options. Our recommendations on the development of decision analysis models will be issued in April, 2016.



An over-riding influence on many decision analysis models is the role of "decision-maker preferences". Decision-maker preferences will often determine the Terms of Reference setting out the scope and content of a decision analysis assignment and therefore influence the nature of the decision analysis model deployed. This has a direct impact on the degree to which decision analysis models can expose all options including those never envisioned by a decision-maker. Thus there are ways to access more complete arrays of options according to extended ranges of analysis.

The process of organizing decision analysis models to better detect all possibilities and take all relevant factors into account can be considered to be an attempt to get at the truth by conscientiously seeking to avoid bias. This points to a process of ethical decision analysis which is specifically geared towards maintaining standards of practice aimed at not only detecting needs but also reviewing all possible solution options without regard to decision-maker preferences beyond the limits of resources available to pay for decision implementation. This is a complex topic but one of importance to systems engineering professional standards. Our recommendations on the development of decision analysis models will be issued in July, 2016.
McNeill, H.W., "Improving communications within systems groups", Decision Analysis Initiative 2010-2015, Portsmouth, August, 2014.- click to access

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